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Liftovka

To establish on the automobile of a tire cover of the greater size, than it is stipulated by firm the manufacturer, resort to liftovke. By a principle of intervention in a design of automobile Liftovka it is divided(shared) on two kinds: Liftovka bodies (Body lift) and liftovka suspension brackets (Suspension Lift).

For the beginning it is necessary to solve what you want to put wheels and on how many you will be lifovat' the automobile. For this purpose measure distance from a pillow - chipper, up to a place in which it(he) will rest at strong impact. This distance plus of 2-3 centimeters on deformation of a pillow, also is a possible(probable) course of a suspension bracket upwards. Then measure distance from the points of a wing nearest to a wheel up to a tire cover, do not overlook that forward wheels turn also this distance can decrease. Now count (and better measure, if trunks are worn out) diameter of your wheels. Diameter of wheels + (distance up to a wing - a course of a suspension bracket upwards) *2 also is the greatest possible size of wheels for your automobile. Not bad certainly to leave a stock in 5-10 millimeters. For Automobiles Toyota Land Cruiser of series of wheels of 4,6,7 maximal size is equal 33 inches. (One inch is equal 25,4 mm)

Now, if you decide that the size of wheels stipulated by the developer to you a little, can congratulate yourselves. You should engage slozhnejshej in completion of the automobile - liftovkoj. At definition of the size of your future wheels take into account that the maximal size of wheels is limited: durability of transmission, transfer number of bridges and capacity of the engine of your automobile.

Usually, the maximal size of wheels is limited to durability of transmission. On the lowered transfer even the low-power engine is capable to curtail(turn) poluos' zazhatogo between stones of a wheel. On calculations of the group which have subdued Elbrus on LandRover "Defender". Capacity of it(him) 2,4 liter turbo a diesel engine in 30! Time surpasses durability of transmission. (Magazine " autopilot " ? 10 1997?). Naturally, the more the size of wheels, the more loading on transmission. For this reason I do not recommend to increase the size of wheels more than by 20-30 % from maximal, stipulated by firm. If, certainly you are excited with reliability of your automobile.

Lack of the twisting moment given to wheels, can bring to nothing the advantages received from the big wheels. There should not be problems with trogan'em on the first transfer and, capacity provernus' the wheels dug in clay or a bog on the first lowered transfer necessarily should suffice. Resistance to rotation will increase proportionally to increase of the size of wheels. It means, that if diameter of your new wheels on 40 % is more than those that cost(stand) now all your transfers "become weaker but faster" on 40 %. I do not doubt that with standard wheels at you all OK. It is possible to try to estimate, as the automobile with new wheels will get under way by means of the following way. You to be necessary to learn(find out) transmitting numbers of your box of transfers.

For an example we shall take KPP Toyoty with the engine 2L-T: 1? = 4.313; 2? = 2.330; 3? = 1.436; 4? = 1.000; 5? = 0.838; back = 4.220. Now we shall try to present, as draft will change at increase of wheels at 40 %. For this purpose it is necessary "to take" 60 % from transmitting numbers KPP. We receive: 1? = 2,5878; 2? = 1,398; 3? = 0,8616; 4? = 0,6; 5? = 0,5028; back = 2,532. We see, that force of draft on the first transfer to turn out hardly more strongly, than on the second with standard wheels. And speed on thirds hardly is less than on the fifth with standard wheels. If your engine has enough capacity, and you arranges as your machine from the second transfer (as she(it) behaves in a dirty on the second lowered) you gets under way can increase a wheel on 40 %. The truth 4? and 5? transfers any more will not be necessary for you. If capacity of the engine does not suffice, there is an opportunity of replacement shesteren the main transfer to bridges. Avto and tjuningovymi firms complete sets shesteren with various transmitting numbers are issued by manufacturers. But shesterni roads, and process of their installation is combined and demands the special equipment. It is necessary as to take into account, that at increase of the size of wheels dynamics(changes) and the maximal speed of your automobile will fall. At the low-power engine it simply can "poison" driving on roads. Besides have in view of what the counter and a speedmeter begin to tell lies.

It is necessary to take into account, that forward wheels at turn can rest against a frame of the automobile or elements of the steering mechanism. It depends on width and diameter of wheels. There are two ways of the decision of this problem.

  • Insignificant restriction ugola turn of wheels by means of adjusting screws. Usually such screws are located on rotary fists, or levers of a suspension bracket. At turn on the maximal corner supports of wheels rest against them. By some machines screws adjust a corner of turn of the helmsman soshki and are located near to it(her).
  • Expansion of a track.

Having weighed all pro ? contra, having chosen the size of wheels you can start to liftovke. The automobile on height equal is enough liftanut' to half of difference between diameter of new wheels and diameter of the maximal wheels allowable without liftovki. For an example: diameter of the maximal wheels allowable without liftovki 33 inches, new wheels of 35 inches. Necessary height liftovki = (35-33/2 = 1 inch (25,4 mm). We shall name this size in height sufficient liftovki [VDL].

Liftovka bodies.

Two pucks between a body and a frame are visible

The most simple and safe is liftovka bodies. It is executed with the help prostavok between a frame and a body. There are many various variants prostavok. Perhaps, the most simple, this use of pucks. (Copyright Alexander Derjugin). However, if you wish to lift a body more than on five centimeters to use a sandwich from washers it is not recommended, as wrong loading on bolts in this case is formed and them can cut off at sharp braking. At the big height of rise of a body it is better to apply steel prostavki, having welded them to a frame.

Is issued, a plenty of firm complete sets for liftovki bodies (Body Lift kit).

It is not necessary to forget about such version of works with a body as cutting of wings. It cannot be named liftingom, but nevertheless cutting of wings allows to increase the size of used trunks. At absence of a frame (Field) this variant remains unique. Certainly it(he) is little bit barbarous, the return way already is not present. But at accurate execution(performance) the machine looks absolutely not bad.

These two ways are similar on a degree of increase of passableness of the automobile:

  • The increase of a road gleam of the automobile (distance from an axis up to the ground) is equal to half from increase of diameter of wheels.
  • The distance from the ground up to a frame of the automobile is increased as, by half from increase of diameter of wheels. (At change of wheels with 33 on 35 inches "belly" rises on one inch.)

At liftovke bodies can arise the following problems, is usual they are not so critical and easily are solved.

  • Problems with trosikami a manual brake and pedals.
  • Problems with the steering mechanism.
  • Problems with brake and toplivoprovodnymi highways on transitions a body - frame.

There is no sense to lift a body more than on VDL as it does not improve geometrical parameters of passableness of the automobile. Liftovka bodies it is good relative simplicity, and that she(it) practically does not lift the centre of gravity of the automobile - keeps his(its) stability in turns and at rolls. That it is important.

Liftovka suspension brackets

The most cardinal way of increase of passableness is liftovka suspension brackets. Depending on a design of the automobile there is a set of ways liftovki suspension brackets. As against the methods described above distance from the ground up to a frame of the automobile grows by the sum of half of increase of diameter of wheels and heights liftovki. I.e. at liftovke on one inch and installation of wheels of 35 inches instead of 33, the distance up to a frame will increase by 2 inches. Besides corners of congress and entrance will increase. However, liftovka suspension brackets are raised with the centre of gravity of the automobile that reduces allowable rolls and does(makes) driving on it(him) more dangerous.

Is difficultly unequivocal to define(determine) on what height in the best way liftovat' a suspension bracket. On the one hand the above the frame of the automobile from the ground, the is higher his(its) passableness, danger of overturning on the other hand is increased. But most important it that kardannye shaft have a limiting corner of an inclination at which they are capable to work, and the closer a corner to limiting, the shaft (usually greatest deterioration occurs in shlitsevom connection of shaft) will wear out faster. Naturally, there is a corner at which shaft in general will refuse to rotate. For struggle against overturning, apply a way of expansion of a track by means of wheel prostavok which we shall consider in the special chapter. For the decision of a problem kardanov sometimes there is an opportunity to incline upwards axes of reducers of the main transfers. This way is not ideal, but we still shall return to it(him). For definition of height liftovki it is necessary to be guided by the following reasons:

  • High position of the automobile is most useful at driving on stony district, perezzhanii logs.
  • At struggle against a bog, a track etc. passableness is limited to distance from the ground up to axes that is defined(determined) only by the size of wheels. In such cases the distance from the ground up to a frame influences not considerably.
  • At the big length of base, long svesah the automobile, the big distance from the ground up to a frame is necessary for successful overcoming roughnesses of ground. Long, low hanging svesy constantly cling for a ground at entrances on an abrupt hill, at overcoming bugrov and kanav.

This implies that if at you dlinnobaznyj the automobile to lift it(him) povyshe better. Korotkobaznyj the automobile is meaningful to lift highly only if you constantly are going "to be at war" with stones and logs. Certainly liftovka it should be not lower VDL.

The further choice of a way liftovki depends on a design of a suspension bracket of your automobile. We shall consider(examine) only liftovku suspension brackets with not cutting axes as for liftovki independent suspension brackets manufacturing new levers and other details is necessary. It is necessary to tell, that tjuningovymi firms, almost for all automobiles (including with an independent suspension bracket) are issued liftovochney complete sets (Suspension lift kit) sometimes doubtful quality and always very expensive(dear).

Spring suspension bracket

Such suspension brackets supply automobiles Mercedes G, LandRover Defender, Discovery, RangeRover, Nissan Patrol GR, Toyota LandCruiser series J8, LJ7, KJ7. Under the same circuit back suspension brackets of automobiles the Field are executed.

Most is kept by two longitudinal levers, and jet draft of cross stability. (In automobiles Land Rover, in a back suspension bracket instead of draft of cross stability the special mechanism with a spherical support is applied.) the Course of the bridge downwards is limited to shock-absorbers, upwards pillows - chippers. Springs rest one end against a special jack on the bridge, another in a jack on a frame. The length and capacity of springs is designed thus that they keep the machine on the average position (weight of the machine not enough to press pillows - chippers to the bridge, force of springs is not enough to lift the machine on all course of shock-absorbers.) our problem(task) to not break this balance. For this purpose as though it is necessary to transfer downwards on identical distance (height liftovki) platforms of fastening of springs, pillows - chippers and shock-absorbers.

Let's start with springs. The spring is kept in jacks only by force of the pressure(voltage). It is necessary to make cups - prostavki which top end precisely repeats a spring, bottom a jack of fastening of a spring. Then cups need to be fixed on jacks. It can be made by means of bolts or welding, differently the sandwich a spring - cup can jump out from the place. From the point of view of geometry has no value to the bridge or to a frame krepit' a cup, but taking into account that that it is not necessary to increase nepodressorennuju weight better all details krepit' to a frame.

Under a pillow - chipper usually do(make) box-shaped prostavku. It is important, that its(her) length should be equal to length of a cup for a spring (height liftovki). At shorter prostavke the spring will be overloaded at impacts and there can be out of operation a shock-absorber, it is possible as zadevanie wheels for a wing. At longer the machine will have more rigid course, pillows - chippers will wear out. The author met liftovannye machines at which in general were absent prostavki under pillows. It is wrong, though and is not appreciable at driving on equal road.

The shock-absorber depending on type of fastening can will be extended by various ways. It is the best way to transfer downwards his(its) fastening, but it is possible as to increase his(its) rod by means of the special cartridge (on the one hand the probe with a groove, repeating end of a rod of the shock-absorber, with another - the aperture with a groove in which is rolled a rod of the shock-absorber.) I Advise to pay special attention to quality of a material as despite of small thickness, the rod of the shock-absorber tests the big loadings at work. Carry of fastening or lengthening of a rod of the shock-absorber should be as, it is equal to height liftovki.

It is necessary to pay attention to drafts of cross stability. The ambassador liftovki they change the position. It is useful to transfer their fastening so to return to drafts the same position what was up to liftovki. The more the deviation(rejection) of drafts from horizontal position in a condition of rest, the more cross course of the bridge at podbrasyvanii machines, results it in instability on road. Do not overlook what better to increase podressorennuju weight than nepodressorennuju, therefore at an opportunity it is better to alter fastening of bent for to a frame instead of to the bridge.

In firm liftovochnyh complete sets the lengthened springs and dlinnohodnye shock-absorbers that allows not only to lift the machine are usually applied but also considerably to increase a course of a suspension bracket.

In such a way the author otliftoval own automobile Toyoty LandCruiser LJ73 on height 50??. Problems with kardanami and the helmsman has not arisen. It was necessary to turn up fastening of a forward brake hose. The ambassador installation of wheels BFG 35x12,5 " slightly was necessary to reduce a corner of turn of forward wheels adjusting screws.

Spring suspension bracket (springs from below bridges)

The most widespread variant of a spring suspension bracket on foreign vnedorozhnikah. It is applied by machines Toyota Land Cruiser of series J4, J6, J7 (except for LJ and KJ), Nissan Patrol 160/260. LandRover before occurrence Defender, Suzuki Samurai, JEEP Wrangler, Cherockee.

Springs pass from below bridges and are attached by step-ladders. Springs are bearing(carrying) and springing element. As well as in a spring suspension bracket, the course of the bridge downwards is limited to shock-absorbers, upwards pillows - chippers.

The elementary, at first sight, a way liftovki such suspension bracket is carry of springs atop of bridges (SpringOver). In parallel with increase of a road gleam from under axes packages of springs are cleaned(removed), that essentially raises passableness. For rearrangement of springs it is necessary to weld from above bridges new platforms for fastening springs. Despite of apparent simplicity this way is very much combined. The basic problem that the height liftovki at this way is equal to the sum of thickness of an axis and a package of springs that is a lot of. (14 sm for Nissan Patrol). Thickness of forward and back packages of springs can be neodinakova. Almost always there are problems with brake hoses, kardanami, steering drafts.

For reduction of a corner of an inclination kardanov it is possible to turn bridges around of an own axis a few. This way some tjuningovye recommend firms. However it(he) is rather disputable as the corner of an inclination shkvornej forward wheels turns out incorrect. Except for that planes of rotation of conducting and conducted flanges kardana do not become parallel, that too it is undesirable. To correct a corner of an inclination shkvornej it is possible to cut off rotary fists and to weld them having turned in the return party(side) so that to compensate turn of the bridge around of an axis.

It is very desirable expand a track for increase of stability of the automobile that too can to have undesirable consequences.

After SpringOver the automobile looks completely monstroidal'no.

It is possible to try to lower height liftovki for the account perevorachivanija ser'gi springs. For this purpose it is necessary to make a special arm for fastening ser'gi. So are fixed ser'gi in back suspension bracket Chevrolet K-5. This way increases deformation of a spring at work a little.

Exist as ways liftovki a spring suspension bracket at which the package of springs remains on the place.

1) Lengthening sereg springs.

By means of new sereg springs it is possible to lift the machine on some height. The height of rise is equal approximately to half of lengthening ser'gi. The automobile in such a way as thus the spring deviates horizontal position too strongly is impossible to lift, the trajectory of movement of an axis of wheels changes. Maximum reasonable length sereg is such at which the end of a spring for which to fasten ser'ga, is on the same distance from the ground, as well as the middle of a spring. The further lengthening sereg will result in decrease(reduction) of passableness. New ser'gi make amplified(strengthened), with an internal partition as at the greater length it is necessary to keep the greater effort in a lateral direction.

2) New fastening springs.

It is possible to try to make new fastening of springs to a frame. The author never saw executions(performances) of such way, but theoretically it(he) can be quite good.

3) New springs with the big bend.

Does not inspire trust a way with application custom-made (with the big bend) springs. The spring is a complex(difficult) element which should be precisely designed and qualitatively made. Such variant can be reliable, only if to fork up on the firm complete set of springs.

Work with pillows - chippers and shock-absorbers is similar described in section a spring suspension bracket.

In passing with performance livtovki it is useful to develop(unwrap) forward springs ser'gami back (Shackle Reversal)

Spring suspension bracket (springs from above bridges)

Automobiles UAZ, Chevrolet K-5, Dodge RAM.

Liftovka practically does not differ from liftovki spring suspension brackets. Prostavka it is inserted between the bridge and a package of springs. Take care, that prostavka could not jump out sideways. For this purpose she(it) should have a ledge coming into an aperture on a platform of fastening of a spring, and as an aperture for a bolt fastening a package of springs. New step-ladders will be necessary for you, it is better to make them to thickness original.

Do not overlook as about a way with lengthening sereg.

Work with pillows - chippers and shock-absorbers is similar described in section a spring suspension bracket.

In passing with performance livtovki it is useful to develop(unwrap) forward springs ser'gami back (Shackle Reversal)

In any case, the ambassador liftovki it is necessary to check up the following:

  • Whether suffices are long kardannyh shaft and whether exceed their corners of an inclination as much as possible allowable for work.
  • Whether it is enough long brake and other hoses.
  • Whether there are enough courses of drafts of steering management.
  • Whether limit a course of a suspension bracket stabilizers of cross stability. (simply it is possible to get rid Of them)
  • It is desirable as to take care of the mechanism of switching-off of back brakes. The matter is that on many automobiles there is a mechanism of antiblocking of back wheels. It(he) supervises a corner of an inclination of a body by "gauging" distance from the back bridge up to a frame and disconnects back brakes at a strong inclination of a body forward. Naturally at liftovke this distance is increased also the mechanism will hold always back brakes switched off.

Everything, except for the mechanism of switching-off of brakes, it is necessary to check, slowly lifting the machine for a frame or bamper before full posting wheels. Have in view of, that if you in time will not notice the stretched hose or steering draft rested against something pressure of springs of a suspension bracket quite will suffice to destroy them.

Consequences jumped out of shlitsev kardana are awful. For check of a stock of length kardanov make marks in that place where they are joined in shlitsah, at completely hung out wheels. Remove(take off) kardany and look what length shlitsevogo connections has remained in gearing. This length should be sufficient that kardan was not turned in shlitsah and that both parts kardana have not lost soosnost' (I think that at length more than two diameters are possible to not worry). It is important to not break balancing kardana. Before taking out kardan from shlitsev otmarkirujte his(its) both parts, then to collect them be relative each other precisely as they and stood. Sometimes at removal kardana even mark flanges then to put kardan precisely on the "@" place.

If you are not sure that the length kardana suffices, it is possible to establish washers - prostavki between flanges kardanov and bridges, and as between flanges kardanov and razdatki. Try that washers were made as it is possible more precisely as it is important to keep balancing kardana.

Unequivocally I can not tell what corner for kardana is greatest possible (for this purpose it is necessary to rummage in books on the mechanics). But I recommend to twist shaft hands (wheels should be hung out and razdatka on nejtrali). If non-uniform resistance to rotation is felt or kardan rests - the corner is too great. Usually such problems arise with a lobby (shorter) kardanom. Meet kardany the hinge of equal angular speeds, they are less critical to a corner of an inclination.

Copyright Gennady V. Izmer 2000


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